| Bacteria in cheese
FDM- “Fat in Dry Matter”
|Bacteria in cheese – in cheese bacteria are an important and useful element: lactic acid bacteria change the milk sugar to lactic acid. The acid acts as a preservative by inhibiting undesirable types of bacteria, helps remove water from the curd and is paramount in development of cheese texture. The lactic acid bacteria and other microorganisms which happen to be present in the cheese contribute enzymes which break down fats, proteins and sugar during aging to produce flavors characteristic of particular cheese varieties (for more info please visit: www.foodsci.uoguelph.ca/dairyedu/cheese2.html)
Blue cheese – cheese with interior mold which is mostly blue, dark blue or green-blue. The intensity of the blue molding and aroma depends on the type of the mold and its ripening activity, but also on the shape, size, composition and surface of the cheese and, as well, on the microclimate of the curing cellar and the length of the ripening process.
Brie – soft cheese with a surface mold made in wheels in a shape of a flat cake originated in Brie in France. Brie is characterized by an edible, downy white rind and a cream-colored, buttery-soft interior
Casein – the most important milk protein in cheesemaking
Cheese - cheese can be broken down into two very broad categories — fresh and ripened . Within these basic categories, however, are a multitude of subdivisions. Naturally, many of these categories overlap because a cheese can have an entirely different character when young than it does when aged. Most cheese begins as milk (usually cow's, goat's or sheep's) that is allowed to thicken (sometimes with the addition of RENNIN or special bacteria) until it separates into a liquid (WHEY) and semisolids (CURD). The whey is drained off and the curds are either allowed to drain or pressed into different shapes, depending on the variety. At this stage it is called fresh (or unripened) cheese. Among the most popular fresh cheeses on the market today are COTTAGE CHEESE, CREAM CHEESE, POT CHEESE and RICOTTA. In order to become a ripened (or aged) cheese, the drained curds are CURED by a variety of processes including being subjected to heat, bacteria, soaking and so on. The curds are also sometimes flavored with salt, spices or herbs and some, like many cheddars, are colored with a natural dye. After curing, natural cheese begins a ripening process during which it's stored, usually uncovered, at a controlled temperature and humidity until the desired texture and character is obtained. Ripened cheeses are further classified according to texture. Hard cheeses are cooked, pressed and aged for long periods (usually at least 2 years) until hard and dry, and are generally used for grating. Among the more well known of this genre are PARMESAN and PECORINO. Semifirm cheeses such as CHEDDAR, EDAM and JARLSBERG are firm but not usually crumbly. They have been cooked and pressed but not aged as long as those in the firm-cheese category. Semisoft cheeses are pressed but can be either cooked or uncooked. Their texture is sliceable but soft. Among the more popular semisoft cheeses are GOUDA, MONTEREY JACK and TILSIT. Soft-ripened (or surface-ripened) cheeses are neither cooked nor pressed. They are, however, subjected to various bacteria (either by spraying or dipping), which ripens the cheese from the outside in. Such cheeses develop a rind that is either powdery white (as in BRIE) or golden orange (like PONT L'ÉVÊQUE). The consistency of soft-ripened cheese can range from semisoft to creamy and spreadable. Some cheeses are further categorized by process. Blue-veined cheeses, for example, are inoculated or sprayed with spores of the molds Penicillium roqueforti or penicillium glaucum . Some of these cheeses are punctured with holes to ensure that the mold will penetrate during the aging period. The result of these painstaking efforts are cheeses with veins or pockets of flavorful blue or green mold. (please go to www.Epicurious.com for more useful information)
Cheese Flora – all microorganisms that are present in or on the cheese during manufacture and ripening. Red bacteria (incl. Linens) and yellow bacteria are the main non-acid forming bacteria used in cheesemaking (The Cheese Bible).
Double crème – Any of various cow's-milk cheeses that have been enriched with cream so that they contain a minimum of 60 percent milk fat
FDM - “Fat in Dry Matter” - cheeses are labeled by percentage of fat in their solid materials. Cheeses have different level of water in them defining their density; the harder the cheese the less water it holds. A hard cheese could actually have more fat than a soft, runny cheese, because the softer one has much higher water content and therefore less fat per total weight. Thus, the fat content is given only with respect to the solid part of the cheese. (“The Cheese Plate”)
Gluten - the tough, viscid, nitrogenous substance remaining when the flour of wheat or other grain is washed to remove the starch. Any cheese product containing oat gum and some veined cheeses (bleu, stilton, roquefort, gorgonzola) are not a part of gluten-free diet. (Dictionary. com)
Lactose - the only sugar that appears in milk in large quantities. Lactose plays a role in cheese making in bringing about the necessary acidification, which improves the natural preservative qualities of the raw material, so called cheese milk and produces the most important byproduct: lactic acid. This process plus the addition of an enzyme called rennet leads to the clumping together of the casein molecules and the separation of whey and curd.(“The Cheese Bible”)
Pasteurization – short heating of the raw milk to 144-162 F
Raw-milk cheese – cheese made from raw, non-pasteurized milk.
Rennet – an extract of the stomach lining of young mammals containing digestive enzymes designed to coagulate milk; used to promote and advance the coagulation of milk in cheese making (The Cheese Plate).
Ripening – (aging or curing) is the period of cheese maturation from sour milk to ripe cheese. Ripening process usually takes place in a ripening room or a cave. The gradual maturation process can last anywhere from a couple of weeks to six years. Cheese ripening is an art and science that requires careful attention (control of temperature and humidity). Without proper ripening even the best cheese will never achieve its optimal stage (The Cheese Bible).
Soft-ripened cheese - (or surface-ripened) cheeses are neither cooked nor pressed. They are subjected to various bacteria (either by spraying or dipping), which ripens the cheese from the outside in. Such cheeses develop a rind that is either powdery white (as in BRIE) or golden orange (like PONT L'ÉVÊQUE). The consistency of soft-ripened cheese can range from semi soft to creamy and spreadable. Some cheeses are further categorized by process. The Soft-Ripened Cheese Family may be divided into two sub-groups. They are: cheeses with Bloomy Rinds, characterized by a soft, white exterior; and cheeses with Washed Rinds, whose orange color, and strong aroma, clearly sets them apart.
Triple crème – French term for cheese made with the addition of extra cream that has more than 70-75 % FDM (Fat in Dry Matter). Both double- and triple-creams share the distinction of being seductively soft and creamy in texture with a mild, slightly sweet flavor.
Washed rind – distinguished by orange color of the rind, caused by washing or wiping the surface of the cheese with a cloth soaked in brine and containing a bacterium called Brevibacterium linens, often with other selected micro-organisms. The texture of most of these types of cheese is soft and pliable, even creamy. The flavor is mildly aromatic.
The above information is based on following sources:
2. The Cheese Bible, idea and concept Christian Teubner, published by the Penquin Group, Penguin Putnam, NY, NY, 1990
3. The Cheese Plate, Max McCalman and David Gibbons, published by Clarkson Potter/Publishers, NY, NY, 2002